-

- — Subtraction operator.

Description

Arithmetic operators perform operations of change-sign (negate), don't-change-sign, logical AND logical OR, add, subtract, multiply and divide. Note that a value or an expression may fall between two of these operators, either of which could take it as its left or right argument, as in

a + b * c.

In such cases three rules apply:

1. * and / bind to their neighbors more strongly than + and −. Thus the above expression is taken as

a + (b * c)

with * taking b and c and then + taking a and b * c.

2. + and bind more strongly than &&, which in turn is stronger than ||:

a && b - c || d

is taken as

(a && (b - c)) || d

3. When both operators bind equally strongly, the operations are done left to right:

a - b - c

is taken as

(a - b) - c

Parentheses may be used as above to force particular groupings.

Syntax

`−a  (no rate restriction)`
`a − b  (no rate restriction)`

where the arguments a and b may be further expressions.

Examples

Here is an example of the - operator. It uses the file subtracts.csd.

Example 17. Example of the - operator.

See the sections Real-time Audio and Command Line Flags for more information on using command line flags.

```<CsoundSynthesizer>
<CsOptions>
; Select audio/midi flags here according to platform
; Audio out   Audio in
; For Non-realtime ouput leave only the line below:
; -o subtracts.wav -W ;;; for file output any platform
</CsOptions>
<CsInstruments>

; Initialize the global variables.
sr = 44100
kr = 4410
ksmps = 10
nchnls = 1

; Instrument #1.
instr 1
i1 = 24 - 8
print i1
endin

</CsInstruments>
<CsScore>

; Play Instrument #1 for one second.
i 1 0 1
e

</CsScore>
</CsoundSynthesizer>
```

Its output should include lines like this:

`instr 1:  i1 = 16.000`