- — Subtraction operator.

Arithmetic operators perform operations of change-sign (negate), don't-change-sign, logical AND logical OR, add, subtract, multiply and divide. Note that a value or an expression may fall between two of these operators, either of which could take it as its left or right argument, as in

a + b * c.

In such cases three rules apply:

1. * and */* bind to their neighbors more strongly than + and −. Thus the above expression is taken as

a + (b * c)

with * taking b and c and then + taking a and b * c.

2. *+* and *−* bind more strongly than &&, which in turn is stronger than ||:

a && b - c || d

is taken as

(a && (b - c)) || d

3. When both operators bind equally strongly, the operations are done left to right:

a - b - c

is taken as

(a - b) - c

Parentheses may be used as above to force particular groupings.

**−**a (no rate restriction)

`a `**−** b (no rate restriction)

where the arguments *a* and *b* may be further expressions.

Here is an example of the - operator. It uses the file *subtracts.csd*.

**Example 17. Example of the - operator.**

See the sections *Real-time Audio* and *Command Line Flags* for more information on using command line flags.

<CsoundSynthesizer> <CsOptions> ; Select audio/midi flags here according to platform ; Audio out Audio in -odac -iadc ;;;RT audio I/O ; For Non-realtime ouput leave only the line below: ; -o subtracts.wav -W ;;; for file output any platform </CsOptions> <CsInstruments> ; Initialize the global variables. sr = 44100 kr = 4410 ksmps = 10 nchnls = 1 ; Instrument #1. instr 1 i1 = 24 - 8 print i1 endin </CsInstruments> <CsScore> ; Play Instrument #1 for one second. i 1 0 1 e </CsScore> </CsoundSynthesizer>

Its output should include lines like this:

instr 1: i1 = 16.000