% — Modulus operator.


Arithmetic operators perform operations of change-sign (negate), don't-change-sign, logical AND logical OR, add, subtract, multiply and divide. Note that a value or an expression may fall between two of these operators, either of which could take it as its left or right argument, as in

a + b * c.

In such cases three rules apply:

1. * and / bind to their neighbors more strongly than + and −. Thus the above expression is taken as

a + (b * c)

with * taking b and c and then + taking a and b * c.

2. + and bind more strongly than &&, which in turn is stronger than ||:

a && b - c || d

is taken as

(a && (b - c)) || d

3. When both operators bind equally strongly, the operations are done left to right:

a - b - c

is taken as

(a - b) - c

Parentheses may be used as above to force particular groupings.

The operator % returns the value of a reduced by b, so that the result, in absolute value, is less than the absolute value of b, by repeated subtraction. This is the same as modulus function in integers. New in Csound version 3.50.


a % b  (no rate restriction)

where the arguments a and b may be further expressions.


Here is an example of the % operator. It uses the file modulus.csd.

Example 10. Example of the % operator.

See the sections Real-time Audio and Command Line Flags for more information on using command line flags.

; Select audio/midi flags here according to platform
; Audio out   Audio in
-odac           -iadc    ;;;RT audio I/O
; For Non-realtime ouput leave only the line below:
; -o modulus.wav -W ;;; for file output any platform

; Initialize the global variables.
sr = 44100
kr = 4410
ksmps = 10
nchnls = 1

; Instrument #1.
instr 1
  i1 = 5 % 3
  print i1


; Play Instrument #1 for one second.
i 1 0 1


Its output should include a line like this:

instr 1:  i1 = 2.000

See Also

-, +, &&, ||, *, /, ^


Example written by Kevin Conder.