grain2

grain2 — Easy-to-use granular synthesis texture generator.

Description

Generate granular synthesis textures. grain2 is simpler to use, but grain3 offers more control.

Syntax

ares grain2 kcps, kfmd, kgdur, iovrlp, kfn, iwfn [, irpow] \
      [, iseed] [, imode]

Initialization

iovrlp -- (fixed) number of overlapping grains.

iwfn -- function table containing window waveform (Use GEN20 to calculate iwfn).

irpow (optional, default=0) -- this value controls the distribution of grain frequency variation. If irpow is positive, the random distribution (x is in the range -1 to 1) is

abs(x) ^ ((1 / irpow) - 1);

for negative irpow values, it is

(1 - abs(x)) ^ ((-1 / irpow) - 1)

Setting irpow to -1, 0, or 1 will result in uniform distribution (this is also faster to calculate). The image below shows some examples for irpow. The default value of irpow is 0.

[A graph of distributions for different values of irpow.]

A graph of distributions for different values of irpow.

iseed (optional, default=0) -- seed value for random number generator (positive integer in the range 1 to 2147483646 (231 - 2)). Zero or negative value seeds from current time (this is also the default).

imode (optional default=0) -- sum of the following values:

  • 8: interpolate window waveform (slower).

  • 4: do not interpolate grain waveform (fast, but lower quality).

  • 2: grain frequency is continuously modified by kcps and kfmd (by default, each grain keeps the frequency it was launched with). This may be slower at high control rates.

  • 1: skip initialization.

Performance

ares -- output signal.

kcps -- grain frequency in Hz.

kfmd -- random variation (bipolar) in grain frequency in Hz.

kgdur -- grain duration in seconds. kgdur also controls the duration of already active grains (actually the speed at which the window function is read). This behavior does not depend on the imode flags.

kfn -- function table containing grain waveform. Table number can be changed at k-rate (this is useful to select from a set of band-limited tables generated by GEN30, to avoid aliasing).

[Note] Note

grain2 internally uses the same random number generator as rnd31. So reading its documentation is also recommended.

Examples

Here is an example of the grain2 opcode. It uses the file grain2.csd.

Example 346. Example of the grain2 opcode.

See the sections Real-time Audio and Command Line Flags for more information on using command line flags.

<CsoundSynthesizer>
<CsOptions>
; Select audio/midi flags here according to platform
; Audio out   Audio in    No messages
-odac           -iadc     -d     ;;;RT audio I/O
; For Non-realtime ouput leave only the line below:
; -o grain2.wav -W ;;; for file output any platform
</CsOptions>
<CsInstruments>

sr	=  48000
kr	=  750
ksmps	=  64
nchnls	=  2

/* square wave */
i_	ftgen 1, 0, 4096, 7, 1, 2048, 1, 0, -1, 2048, -1
/* window */
i_	ftgen 2, 0, 16384, 7, 0, 4096, 1, 4096, 0.3333, 8192, 0
/* sine wave */
i_	ftgen 3, 0, 1024, 10, 1
/* room parameters */
i_	ftgen 7, 0, 64, -2, 4, 50, -1, -1, -1, 11,			\
			    1, 26.833, 0.05, 0.85, 10000, 0.8, 0.5, 2,	\
			    1,  1.753, 0.05, 0.85,  5000, 0.8, 0.5, 2,	\
			    1, 39.451, 0.05, 0.85,  7000, 0.8, 0.5, 2,	\
			    1, 33.503, 0.05, 0.85,  7000, 0.8, 0.5, 2,	\
			    1, 36.151, 0.05, 0.85,  7000, 0.8, 0.5, 2,	\
			    1, 29.633, 0.05, 0.85,  7000, 0.8, 0.5, 2

ga01	init 0

/* generate bandlimited square waves */

i0	=  0
loop1:
imaxh	=  sr / (2 * 440.0 * exp (log(2.0) * (i0 - 69) / 12))
i_	ftgen i0 + 256, 0, 4096, -30, 1, 1, imaxh
i0	=  i0 + 1
	if (i0 < 127.5) igoto loop1

	instr 1

p3	=  p3 + 0.2

/* note velocity */
iamp	=  0.0039 + p5 * p5 / 16192
/* vibrato */
kcps	oscili 1, 8, 3
kenv	linseg 0, 0.05, 0, 0.1, 1, 1, 1
/* frequency */
kcps	=  (kcps * kenv * 0.01 + 1) * 440 * exp(log(2) * (p4 - 69) / 12)
/* grain ftable */
kfn	=  int(256 + 69 + 0.5 + 12 * log(kcps / 440) / log(2))
/* grain duration */
kgdur	port 100, 0.1, 20
kgdur	=  kgdur / kcps

a1	grain2 kcps, kcps * 0.02, kgdur, 50, kfn, 2, -0.5, 22, 2
a1	butterlp a1, 3000
a2	grain2 kcps, kcps * 0.02, 4 / kcps, 50, kfn, 2, -0.5, 23, 2
a2	butterbp a2, 12000, 8000
a2	butterbp a2, 12000, 8000
aenv1	linseg 0, 0.01, 1, 1, 1
aenv2	linseg 3, 0.05, 1, 1, 1
aenv3	linseg 1, p3 - 0.2, 1, 0.07, 0, 1, 0

a1	=  aenv1 * aenv3 * (a1 + a2 * 0.7 * aenv2)

ga01	=  ga01 + a1 * 10000 * iamp

	endin

/* output instr */

	instr 81

i1	=  0.000001
aLl, aLh, aRl, aRh	spat3di ga01 + i1*i1*i1*i1, 3.0, 4.0, 0.0, 0.5, 7, 4
ga01	=  0
aLl	butterlp aLl, 800.0
aRl	butterlp aRl, 800.0

	outs aLl + aLh, aRl + aRh

	endin


</CsInstruments>
<CsScore>

t 0 60

i 1 0.0 1.3 60 127
i 1 2.0 1.3 67 127
i 1 4.0 1.3 64 112
i 1 4.0 1.3 72 112

i 81 0 6.4

e


</CsScore>
</CsoundSynthesizer>


See Also

grain3

Credits

Author: Istvan Varga

New in version 4.15

Updated April 2002 by Istvan Varga