ziwm — Writes to a zk variable to an i-rate variable with mixing.


Writes to a zk variable to an i-rate variable with mixing.


ziwm isig, indx [, imix]


isig -- initializes the value of the zk location.

indx -- points to the zk location location to which to write.

imix (optional, default=1) -- indicates if mixing should occur.


ziwm is a mixing opcode, it adds the signal to the current value of the variable. If no imix is specified, mixing always occurs. imix = 0 will cause overwriting like ziw, zkw, and zaw. Any other value will cause mixing.

Caution: When using the mixing opcodes ziwm, zkwm, and zawm, care must be taken that the variables mixed to, are zeroed at the end (or start) of each k- or a-cycle. Continuing to add signals to them, can cause their values can drift to astronomical figures.

One approach would be to establish certain ranges of zk or za variables to be used for mixing, then use zkcl or zacl to clear those ranges.


Here is an example of the ziwm opcode. It uses the file ziwm.csd.

Example 540. Example of the ziwm opcode.

See the sections Real-time Audio and Command Line Flags for more information on using command line flags.

; Select audio/midi flags here according to platform
; Audio out   Audio in
-odac           -iadc    ;;;RT audio I/O
; For Non-realtime ouput leave only the line below:
; -o ziwm.wav -W ;;; for file output any platform

; Initialize the global variables.
sr = 44100
kr = 4410
ksmps = 10
nchnls = 1

; Initialize the ZAK space.
; Create 1 a-rate variable and 1 k-rate variable.
zakinit 1, 1

; Instrument #1 -- a simple instrument.
instr 1
  ; Add 20.5 to zk variable #1.
  ziwm 20.5, 1

; Instrument #2 -- another simple instrument.
instr 2
  ; Add 15.25 to zk variable #1.
  ziwm 15.25, 1

; Instrument #3 -- prints out zk variable #1.
instr 3
  ; Read zk variable #1 at i-rate.
  i1 zir 1

  ; Print out the value of zk variable #1.
  ; It should be 35.75 (20.5 + 15.25)
  print i1


; Play Instrument #1 for one second.
i 1 0 1
; Play Instrument #2 for one second.
i 2 0 1
; Play Instrument #3 for one second.
i 3 0 1


See Also

zaw, zawm, ziw, zkw, zkwm


Author: Robin Whittle
May 1997

New in version 3.45

Example written by Kevin Conder.