powoftwo — Performs a power-of-two calculation.


Performs a power-of-two calculation.


powoftwo(x)  (init-rate or control-rate args only)


powoftwo() function returns 2x and allows positive and negatives numbers as argument. The range of values admitted in powoftwo() is -5 to +5 allowing a precision more fine than one cent in a range of ten octaves. If a greater range of values is required, use the slower opcode pow.

These functions are fast, because they read values stored in tables. Also they are very useful when working with tuning ratios. They work at i- and k-rate.


Here is an example of the powoftwo opcode. It uses the file powoftwo.csd.

Example 337. Example of the powoftwo opcode.

See the sections Real-time Audio and Command Line Flags for more information on using command line flags.

; Select audio/midi flags here according to platform
; Audio out   Audio in
-odac           -iadc    ;;;RT audio I/O
; For Non-realtime ouput leave only the line below:
; -o powoftwo.wav -W ;;; for file output any platform

; Initialize the global variables.
sr = 44100
kr = 4410
ksmps = 10
nchnls = 1

; Instrument #1.
instr 1
  i1 = powoftwo(12)
  print i1


; Play Instrument #1 for one second.
i 1 0 1


Its output should include a line like this:

instr 1:  i1 = 4096.000

See Also

logbtwo, pow


Author: Gabriel Maldonado
June 1998

Author: John ffitch
University of Bath, Codemist, Ltd.
Bath, UK
July 1999

Example written by Kevin Conder.

New in Csound version 3.57