moogvcf — A digital emulation of the Moog diode ladder filter configuration.


A digital emulation of the Moog diode ladder filter configuration.


ares moogvcf asig, xfco, xres [,iscale, iskip]


iscale (optional, default=1) -- internal scaling factor. Use if asig is not in the range +/-1. Input is first divided by iscale, then output is mutliplied iscale. Default value is 1. (New in Csound version 3.50)

iskip (optional, default=0) -- if non zero skip the initialisation of the filter. (New in Csound version 4.23f13 and 5.0)


asig -- input signal

xfco -- filter cut-off frequency in Hz. As of version 3.50, may i-,k-, or a-rate.

xres -- amount of resonance. Self-oscillation occurs when xres is approximately one. As of version 3.50, may a-rate, i-rate, or k-rate.

moogvcf is a digital emulation of the Moog diode ladder filter configuration. This emulation is based loosely on the paper “Analyzing the Moog VCF with Considerations for Digital Implemnetation” by Stilson and Smith (CCRMA). This version was originally coded in Csound by Josep Comajuncosas. Some modifications and conversion to C were done by Hans Mikelson

[Warning] Warning

This filter requires that the input signal be normalized to one. This can be easily achieved using 0dbfs, like this:

ares moogvcf asig, kfco, kres, 0dbfs

You can also use moogvcf2 which defaults scaling to 0dbfs.


Here is an example of the moogvcf opcode. It uses the file moogvcf.csd.

Example 267. Example of the moogvcf opcode.

See the sections Real-time Audio and Command Line Flags for more information on using command line flags.

; Select audio/midi flags here according to platform
; Audio out   Audio in    No messages
-odac           -iadc     -d     ;;;RT audio I/O
; For Non-realtime ouput leave only the line below:
; -o moogvcf.wav -W ;;; for file output any platform

; Initialize the global variables.
sr = 44100
kr = 4410
ksmps = 10
nchnls = 1

; Instrument #1.
instr 1
  ; Use a nice sawtooth waveform.
  asig vco 32000, 220, 1

  ; Vary the filter-cutoff frequency from .2 to 2 KHz.
  kfco line 200, p3, 2000

  ; Set the resonance amount to one.
  krez init 1

  ; Scale the amplitude to 32768.
  iscale = 32768

  a1 moogvcf asig, kfco, krez, iscale

  out a1


; Table #1, a sine wave for the vco opcode.
f 1 0 16384 10 1

; Play Instrument #1 for three seconds.
i 1 0 3


See Also

moogvcf2, biquad, rezzy


Author: Hans Mikelson
October 1998

Example written by Kevin Conder.

New in Csound version 3.49