lowpass2 — A resonant lowpass filter.


Implementation of a resonant second-order lowpass filter.


ares lowpass2 asig, kcf, kq [, iskip]


iskip -- initial disposition of internal data space. A zero value will clear the space; a non-zero value will allow previous information to remain. The default value is 0.


asig -- input signal to be filtered

kcf -- cutoff or resonant frequency of the filter, measured in Hz

kq -- Q of the filter, defined, for bandpass filters, as bandwidth/cutoff. kq should be between 1 and 500

lowpass2 is a second order IIR lowpass filter, with k-rate controls for cutoff frequency (kcf) and Q (kq). As kq is increased, a resonant peak forms around the cutoff frequency, transforming the lowpass filter response into a response that is similar to a bandpass filter, but with more low frequency energy. This corresponds to an increase in the magnitude and "sharpness" of the resonant peak. For high values of kq, a scaling function such as balance may be required. In practice, this allows for the simulation of the voltage-controlled filters of analog synthesizers, or for the creation of a pitch of constant amplitude while filtering white noise.


Here is an example of the lowpass2 opcode. It uses the file lowpass2.csd.

Example 239. Example of the lowpass2 opcode.

See the sections Real-time Audio and Command Line Flags for more information on using command line flags.

; Select audio/midi flags here according to platform
; Audio out   Audio in    No messages
-odac           -iadc     -d     ;;;RT audio I/O
; For Non-realtime ouput leave only the line below:
; -o lowpass2.wav -W ;;; for file output any platform

/* Written by Sean Costello */
; Orchestra file for resonant filter sweep of a sawtooth-like waveform.
  sr = 44100
  kr = 2205
  ksmps = 20
  nchnls = 1

          instr 1

  idur    =          p3
  ifreq   =          p4
  iamp    =          p5 * .5
  iharms  =          (sr*.4) / ifreq

; Sawtooth-like waveform
  asig    gbuzz 1, ifreq, iharms, 1, .9, 1

; Envelope to control filter cutoff 
  kfreq   linseg 1, idur * 0.5, 5000, idur * 0.5, 1

  afilt   lowpass2 asig, kfreq, 30

; Simple amplitude envelope
  kenv    linseg 0, .1, iamp, idur -.2, iamp, .1, 0 
          out asig * kenv



/* Written by Sean Costello */
f1 0 8192 9 1 1 .25

i1 0 5 100 1000
i1 5 5 200 1000



Author: Sean Costello
Seattle, Washington
August 1999

New in Csound version 4.0