line — Trace a straight line between specified points.


Trace a straight line between specified points.


ares line ia, idur, ib
kres line ia, idur, ib


ia -- starting value.

ib -- value after idur seconds.

idur -- duration in seconds of segment. A zero or negative value will cause all initialization to be skipped.


These units generate control or audio signals whose values can pass through 2 or more specified points. The sum of dur values may or may not equal the instrument's performance time: a shorter performance will truncate the specified pattern, while a longer one will cause the last-defined segment to continue on in the same direction.

[Note] Note

A common error with this opcode is to assume that the value of ib is held after the time idur1. line does not automatically end or stop at the end of the duration given. If your note length is longer than idur seconds, kres (or ares) will not come to rest at ib, but will instead continue to rise or fall with the same rate. If a rise (or fall) and then hold is required that the linseg opcode should be considered instead.


Here is an example of the line opcode. It uses the file line.csd.

Example 226. Example of the line opcode.

See the sections Real-time Audio and Command Line Flags for more information on using command line flags.

; Select audio/midi flags here according to platform
; Audio out   Audio in    No messages
-odac           -iadc     -d     ;;;RT audio I/O
; For Non-realtime ouput leave only the line below:
; -o line.wav -W ;;; for file output any platform

; Initialize the global variables.
sr = 44100
kr = 4410
ksmps = 10
nchnls = 1

; Instrument #1.
instr 1
  ; Define kcps as a frequency value that linearly declines 
  ; from 880 to 220. It declines over the period set by p3.
  kcps line 880, p3, 220

  a1 oscil 20000, kcps, 1
  out a1

instr 2
  kcps line 880, 1, 660   ; kcps won't stop at 660 if p3 > 1
  a1 oscil 20000, kcps, 1
  out a1

instr 3
  kcps line 880, 1, 660, 1, 660   ; kcps will stay at 660 after 1 sec.
  a1 oscil 20000, kcps, 1
  out a1


; Table #1, a sine wave.
f 1 0 16384 10 1

; Play Instrument #1 for two seconds.
i 1 0 2

i 2 3 2

i 3 6 2


See Also

expon, expseg, expsegr, linseg, linsegr


Example written by Kevin Conder.