dripwater — Semi-physical model of a water drop.


dripwater is a semi-physical model of a water drop. It is one of the PhISEM percussion opcodes. PhISEM (Physically Informed Stochastic Event Modeling) is an algorithmic approach for simulating collisions of multiple independent sound producing objects.


ares dripwater kamp, idettack [, inum] [, idamp] [, imaxshake] [, ifreq] \
      [, ifreq1] [, ifreq2]


idettack -- period of time over which all sound is stopped

inum (optional) -- The number of beads, teeth, bells, timbrels, etc. If zero, the default value is 10.

idamp (optional) -- the damping factor, as part of this equation:

damping_amount = 0.996 + (idamp * 0.002)

The default damping_amount is 0.996 which means that the default value of idamp is 0. The maximum damping_amount is 1.0 (no damping). This means the maximum value for idamp is 2.0.

The recommended range for idamp is usually below 75% of the maximum value. Rasmus Ekman suggests a range of 1.4-1.75. He also suggests a maximum value of 1.9 instead of the theoretical limit of 2.0.

imaxshake (optional, default=0) -- amount of energy to add back into the system. The value should be in range 0 to 1.

ifreq (optional) -- the main resonant frequency. The default value is 450.

ifreq1 (optional) -- the first resonant frequency. The default value is 600.

ifreq2 (optional) -- the second resonant frequency. The default value is 750.


kamp -- Amplitude of output. Note: As these instruments are stochastic, this is only an approximation.


Here is an example of the dripwater opcode. It uses the file dripwater.csd.

Example 122. Example of the dripwater opcode.

See the sections Real-time Audio and Command Line Flags for more information on using command line flags.

; Select audio/midi flags here according to platform
; Audio out   Audio in    No messages
-odac           -iadc     -d     ;;;RT audio I/O
; For Non-realtime ouput leave only the line below:
; -o dripwater.wav -W ;;; for file output any platform

sr = 44100
kr = 4410
ksmps = 10
nchnls = 1

instr 01  ;example of a water drip
a1  line 5, p3, 5  ;preset an amplitude boost
a2  dripwater p4, 0.01, 0, .9  ;dripwater needs a little amplitude help at these values
a3  product a1, a2 ;increase amplitude
    out a3


i1 0 1 20000


See Also

bamboo, guiro, sleighbells, tambourine


Author: Perry Cook, part of the PhISEM (Physically Informed Stochastic Event Modeling)
Adapted by John ffitch
University of Bath, Codemist Ltd.
Bath, UK

New in Csound version 4.07

Added notes by Rasmus Ekman on May 2002.