Mathematical Functions: Opcode Equivalents of Functions

## pow

```
ir      pow        iarg, ipow

kr      pow        karg, kpow[, inorm]

ar      pow        aarg, kpow[, inorm]

```

### Description

Computes xarg to the power of kpow (or ipow) and scales the result by inorm.

### Initialization

inorm – The number to divide the result (default to 1). This is especially useful if you are doing powers of a- or k- signals where samples out of range are extremely common!

iarg – i-rate base.

ipow – i-rate exponent

### Performance

karg – k-rate base.

kpow – k-rate exponent

aarg – a-rate base.

### Examples

```
i2t2    pow        2,2      ; Computes 2^2.

kline   line       0, 1, 4

kexp    pow        kline, 2, 4

```

This feeds a linear function to pow and scales that to the line's peak value. The output will be an exponential curve with the same range as the input line.

```
iamp    pow        0, 2

a1      oscil      iamp, 100, 1

a2      pow        a1, 2, iamp

out        a2

```

This will output a sine with its negative part folded over the amplitude axis. The peak value will be iamp = 10^2 = 100.

The first line could also be written:

```
i2t2    =  2^2```

Use ^ with caution in arithmetical statements, as the precedence may not be correct. New in Csound version 3.493.

### Deprecated Names

pow was originally three opcodes called ipow, kpow, and apow. As of Csound version 3.48 those names are deprecated, and the three seperate opcodes replaced by pow.

### Author

Paris Smaragdis
MIT, Cambridge
1995

Mathematical Functions: Opcode Equivalents of Functions